Five-sixths of Salzburg is mountainous and lies in the northern declivity of the eastern Alps on both sides of the River Salzach and the upper reaches of the Saalach, Enns and Mur rivers.
The province has a share of the central alpine zone in the Hohen and Niederen Tauern ( Hohe Tauern National Park), as well as a share of the Salzburg Slate- and Limestone Alps and of the foothills of the Alps.
With Lake Fuschl, the lake landscape of the Salzkammergut to the northeast contains the larger part of Lake Wolfgang, and Salzburg is divided into historical and administrative areas that follow their borders of the natural landscapes today:
- the foothills of the Alps and the Salzburg part of the Salzkammergut are called Flachgau
- the region of the Limestone Alps and the Lammer Valley form the Tennengau
- the region around the central Salzach and the Upper Enns Valley is called Pongau
- the region around the Upper Salzach Valley and the Saalach Valley is called Pinzgau
- the drainage basin of the uppermost part of the River Mur is called Lungau